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Pinney were wonderful, so bright, so sey Meadows. If they once felt secure Ambassador Henderson that he was a director black, so alive. But her smile was more see, we haven’t spoken before in p under the nsot y act forbidi inability to remain out of any con- times. Come right did hate to go. Here’s your ness f isolation, favored aggressive on deaf earsBeing a Friend nobly, but they can’t do every- In Sally’s small living room, so money.
It remains for some mon- old-fashioned, so cozy, and withal her handbag and gave it to Julia. England’s mediator, Viscount has apart from his fellowship with “LikeJulia Pinney told her story. Pinney could just articulate. The God if he is a Christian, and the e rs. Pinney do? Though any U. It is the flower that blooms was a small, eager woman, who “I want you to go to Helen Chi- “It did. President would favor such a torial autonomy; 2 recognition of by the side of the rugged pathway looked rather worn from the long- chester and get her to give us ty years ago Helen got the man I their full equality in the Czechoslo- of life.
That will keep the hos- wanted. But no one ever knew it yak state; 3 recognition of full friendships need to be cultivated precious little hospital goig on pital running for one year.
After except her and me, for the day equality of the German language in and encouraged. It has been said that the love of “Yes! Chichester She is smile and I’ve worn it ever since. She could give Sally’s smile vanished. She was She paused reflectively. We made a fair ing the show again. At Nuremberg, and precious thing, but that the “There’s the question. I’m quirs. I told her how I got it N. I’ve ap- “s you’re a dear.
You ar secret. Some might question such a Soahave I, moaned Mrs. Pin- one cast dot Herbert Chichester had only many’s power and praised his two statement and yet it is true that ney. Piney was long enough to spoil the lives of Shi t ty certain. I suppose it’s hopeless. His wife had grown IDAt Takaoka, fire leveled 2, the possibility of the hi g es type ‘I don’t know about that.
I’ve pense, Sally-walked in. The Sally selfish and sore, but the woman Osakains, 15,ahos were flooded tandshep head ofand ipiring been thinking I’d send Sally Drew smile was bright indeed, she had won him from had Osaka, 15, homes were flooded.
You brightened a whole community. The lesson for today calls for a careful reading of the incidents in Politics the life of Jonathan and David re- Behind Franklin Roosevelt lay corded in I Samuel, chapters 14, 18, two smarting political defeats.
It is a story which Ellison D. California’s in the light of this background we “No human being could say Democrats had licked his favorite, note six things that characterized Sen.
William Gibbs McAdoo. Cultivated v. French were seeking allies in their losses in Maryland and Georgia, Friendships must be “kept in re- bluff game against Adolf Hitler. Ambassa- stubborn as an army mule and com- fending his fellowmen, or by dors Joseph P.
Kennedy to Great pletely devoid of party lines. Bullitt to Mulling these thoughts, the Pres- acts that cultivate friendship, drives France. To each fell the job of ex- ident soon offered a solution. At men away from him. Consider Last week, each spoke, cutting candidates regardless of their polit- the admonition of our Lord in Luke through diplomatic red tape in a ical ancestry. Boasted he: Good of country rises Roosevelt said he Courteous v.
Said he: More friendships are United States are indefectively unit- election, and in Let Christian men and women with high quality it’s always spoke again: M foloer ofeson thevo getliJsuendi out Hamilton found the statement a con will bring them countless friends.
Candid v. Only gave proud France and Great Brit- Explained he: Most of the Demo- speaks the truth in love. Jonathan features: Gum-Dipping, the Firestone patented sibility: If our effort for peace True liberals are those making a IV. Courageous vv. True that when the time of parting came 2. Two extra layers of Gum-Dipped cords in other men’s shoes, recognizing liberals would never vote for.
But he was true to David 4. James Hamilton Lewis, ship became known. Obviously proud demn us for it. Covenant Keeping vv. Jonathan deal than “a short life carrying a t never iend ovnil Jonaan gun. He sees unmistakable evi- sizes for trucks and buses. It brings you high quality a have envied the headlines being dence that this perverse spirit has at low cost. Truck owners who have already used this made by his fellow dictator, Adolf come into the precincts of the dc ri ce Hitler. Since early August, the one- church itself.
We should have a re- tire are referring to it as the truck tire sensation of Complete v. His devotion to David had Czechoslovakian Sudeten leader no qualifying “strings” on it. Built highest quality Ava labe Henderson, emerged after assuring. Three days later, Franklin Roose- Friendship is akin to our relation-. Ask for our performance by putting in a of war fever. If Adolf Hitler’s 1,,- the scalp of Sen. Millard E. This does Spark Plugs today. Twice weekly and the piece Firestone Symphony Orchestra, atRins fte wvudisin ne for- theg masoity ofema beras jaty.
Consult your local paper under the direction of Alfred Walenstin, Monday tiications they would use in a war long as it remains a liberal party, fare, and a complete devotion of for the station, day, and time of broadcast. Red Networ. Paris bristled immedi- If it reverts, it will fall. The Monticello News, Monticello, Fla.
Jones dictating letter: The figure a mannequin earns depends upon the figure. Countless examinations in all parts of ‘There ain’t any harm In a the country reveal that practically per cent of the adult loaf once in aWjhile,” said Un- population is afflicted with some form of oral disease.
And cle Eben. There is strong evidence turnin’ out sunshiny days and that this vitamin is essential to fishing worms. And cay affects between 90 and 97 per there are on record remarkable This may irritate the tender tis- tent of our school children. Left to right: For teeth are to develop properly. The use of an antiseptic mouth- serisess nfotnte statis r wash, at lea-st once daily, espe- it scially before retiring, is com- teeth and dental infections which Importance of Dental Hygiene mendable as it leaves the mouth g.
Thus the victim does not tinning throughout life, is neces- teeth regular systematic cleans- become sufficiently alarmed to sary to build teeth that are struc- ing, and to see your dentist peri- take the steps necessary to arrest turally sound. But even the most odically for a careful checkup. Yet a single decayed tooth Thorough brushing is necessary Questions Answered might be compared to a poison after every meal to remove all factory, distributing its noxious particles of food which remain be- –products to every part of the body, tween the crevices and cling near and tooth decay may be indirectly the necks of the teeth.
If not re- corn both contain copper, and so responsible for rheumatic ail- moved, this debris may ferment does beef liver. Copper is a min- ments, neuritis, dyspepsia or du- giving rise to unpleasant odors eral that is needed for the proper odenal ulcers.
It may even be a and creating acids which may at- utilzation of iron. Leahy, chief of Possibilities of Prevention the brushing be done correctly, for a full grown man.
That is naval operations, leaves the White Yet there is little or no excuse away frong the gums and with a why they must eat generously of House after conferring with Presi- for the appalling amount of dental slight rollng stroke, so that the whole grain cereals, eggs, dried dent Roosevelt on next year’s naval decay that afflicts the American bristles can penetrate between the legumes, leafy vegetables, milk building program.
Admiral Leahy decay teeth Never use a horizontal and cheese. For in recent years a vasttthgus said it would probably be necessary amount of laboratory and clinical stroke nor brush toward the gums. Houston Goudiss Ellison building costs would increase as evidence that dental caries, or de- D.
The program will come by dietary means. Then, too, our cratic primary. A dress- -. One pattern and the with emphasis on those that leave Fl au and Winter Pattern Book- an alkaline-ash. Wacker Dr. The development of the such a smart way to brighten up Price of patterns, 15 cents in dents of Escondido, Calif. Here are two at- 0 Bell syndicate. Miss Margaret Wiley, who reigned Like the late John Warde, who killed himself last July in a sensational rate as soon as vitamin A is with- tractive and unusual designs that supreme over the bounteous crop of leap from a Manhattan hotel, William Ahearn, a psychopathic patient in held.
When experimental animals you’ll enjoy making at home, in grapes grown in that territory this New York’s Bellevue hospital, stood on a narrow ledge of the hos- are placed on a diet lacking in pretty fabrics of your own selec- SOOTHe BURNS summer.
The celebration is an an- pital’s ninth floor for several hours before Fireman Thomas J. Kehoe are plamdn iet lacm tion. Each includes a d d nul ffi, ige tanusa tisfthis vitamin, their teeth become to. Ec inldsadetailed nual affair, bigger than usual this left gripped him by the ankle and dragged him back to safety. The brittle, chalky and white. This is sew chart to guide beginners.
Inasmuch as vitamin A likewise ham for the house. The very cied uoffFifth sAvnuein eecenter has many other important func- short kimono sleeves are just as o tons to perform in the body, ev- easy to work in as no sleeves, and Two delightfolrestaueanrs. All roos ery homemaker should see to it much more becoming. Straight hav’ tub o shower bath. The Panty-Frock. This flar- Pepsodent alone of all tooth powders k, contains remarkable Irium!
After a short about the remarkable effectiveness. Expect a real improvement I. For asteroid, such as Hermes, which came within , miles of the earth last year, were to fall in New York consult your mirror Pepsodent is faster more effectiveand harbor. A tidal wave would inundate the city, shipping would be destroyed, bridges would crumble and sky.
Examinyou teeth cloely. SAFE in its action on teeth hI It contains -sciapers would burst into flames as a result of the terrible heat. Said Certificate embraces Iorfilhe Stale of Florida. Senator for, Twen,.
I ion 2, Twp. For Five County Commissioners. Edtr n Poritr house door on tile first Monday il. The Legislature shall WM. I North Range 3 East, 2 acres. GRANT, ‘, both inclusive. Sheriff Jefferson County. I ot ange 3Es, 20Twp. South Bange 5 East, 40 acres. T of the Constitution of the next General Election to be held in pounds; eq0ippoe wtha 1. Publication of Notice of Intention “Section 5. That the following same shall be sui generis and sub- Tbe Boardhinery o te flin: Th axes tob odaeeiecdb etfct o ftesl fSeptemabor 5, , and represent amendment to Section 21 of Article ject to the lawful orders of the Gov- qoe, 1 Ausin-est Iler Dul Tn- hycri’ eN.
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Dated this the 7th, day of Sep- ‘Thne t as t, be4ol areas. SutRae5Es, amended so as to retad as follows: Range 6 East, acres. Reed holder of Tax Certificate by certificate No. War Department. Lots 3, 4, 6, 8 S tio by certificate No. I te assessment of saird taxes for [lhe years to , A. Dated this the 31st, dlay of August fected may be situated, which not- thereof, shall be subject to the same Matinee Tues.
A Unless said Certificate shall be Clrat o fth aeo er erncuty lort d lays prior to introduction into the! Wednesday–One Day Only E CL EH. AU by certificate No. SHlT ion 30, Twpl.
Happy indeed would be the condition of youth if they had one corrupter only, and all the rest of the world were their improvers. And you, Meletus, have sufficiently shown that you never had a thought about the young: And now, Meletus, I must ask you another question: Which is better, to live among bad citizens, or among good ones? Answer, friend, I say; for that is a question which may be easily answered.
Do not the good do their neighbors good, and the bad do them evil? And is there anyone who would rather be injured than benefited by those who live with him? Answer, my good friend; the law requires you to answer – does anyone like to be injured? Certainly not. And when you accuse me of corrupting and deteriorating the youth, do you allege that I corrupt them intentionally or unintentionally?
Intentionally, I say. But you have just admitted that the good do their neighbors good, and the evil do them evil.
Now is that a truth which your superior wisdom has recognized thus early in life, and am I, at my age, in such darkness and ignorance as not to know that if a man with whom I have to live is corrupted by me, I am very likely to be harmed by him, and yet I corrupt him, and intentionally, too; – that is what you are saying, and of that you will never persuade me or any other human being.
But either I do not corrupt them, or I corrupt them unintentionally, so that on either view of the case you lie. If my offence is unintentional, the law has no cognizance of unintentional offences: I have shown, Athenians, as I was saying, that Meletus has no care at all, great or small, about the matter. But still I should like to know, Meletus, in what I am affirmed to corrupt the young.
I suppose you mean, as I infer from your indictment, that I teach them not to acknowledge the gods which the state acknowledges, but some other new divinities or spiritual agencies in their stead. These are the lessons which corrupt the youth, as you say. Yes, that I say emphatically. Then, by the gods, Meletus, of whom we are speaking, tell me and the court, in somewhat plainer terms, what you mean!
Or, do you mean to say that I am an atheist simply, and a teacher of atheism? I mean the latter – that you are a complete atheist. That is an extraordinary statement, Meletus. Why do you say that? Do you mean that I do not believe in the godhead of the sun or moon, which is the common creed of all men?
I assure you, judges, that he does not believe in them; for he says that the sun is stone, and the moon earth. Friend Meletus, you think that you are accusing Anaxagoras; and you have but a bad opinion of the judges, if you fancy them ignorant to such a degree as not to know that those doctrines are found in the books of Anaxagoras the Clazomenian, who is full of them.
And these are the doctrines which the youth are said to learn of Socrates, when there are not unfrequently exhibitions of them at the theatre price of admission one drachma at the most ; and they might cheaply purchase them, and laugh at Socrates if he pretends to father such eccentricities. And so, Meletus, you really think that I do not believe in any god? I swear by Zeus that you believe absolutely in none at all. You are a liar, Meletus, not believed even by yourself.
For I cannot help thinking, O men of Athens, that Meletus is reckless and impudent, and that he has written this indictment in a spirit of mere wantonness and youthful bravado. Has he not compounded a riddle, thinking to try me? He said to himself: For he certainly does appear to me to contradict himself in the indictment as much as if he said that Socrates is guilty of not believing in the gods, and yet of believing in them – but this surely is a piece of fun.
I should like you, O men of Athens, to join me in examining what I conceive to be his inconsistency; and do you, Meletus, answer. And I must remind you that you are not to interrupt me if I speak in my accustomed manner. Did ever man, Meletus, believe in the existence of human things, and not of human beings? I wish, men of Athens, that he would answer, and not be always trying to get up an interruption.
Did ever any man believe in horsemanship, and not in horses? No, my friend; I will answer to you and to the court, as you refuse to answer for yourself. There is no man who ever did. But now please to answer the next question: Can a man believe in spiritual and divine agencies, and not in spirits or demigods? He cannot. I am glad that I have extracted that answer, by the assistance of the court; nevertheless you swear in the indictment that I teach and believe in divine or spiritual agencies new or old, no matter for that ; at any rate, I believe in spiritual agencies, as you say and swear in the affidavit; but if I believe in divine beings, I must believe in spirits or demigods; – is not that true?
Yes, that is true, for I may assume that your silence gives assent to that. Now what are spirits or demigods? Is that true? Yes, that is true. But this is just the ingenious riddle of which I was speaking: For if the demigods are the illegitimate sons of gods, whether by the Nymphs or by any other mothers, as is thought, that, as all men will allow, necessarily implies the existence of their parents.
You might as well affirm the existence of mules, and deny that of horses and asses. Such nonsense, Meletus, could only have been intended by you as a trial of me. You have put this into the indictment because you had nothing real of which to accuse me. But no one who has a particle of understanding will ever be convinced by you that the same man can believe in divine and superhuman things, and yet not believe that there are gods and demigods and heroes.
I have said enough in answer to the charge of Meletus: Someone will say: And are you not ashamed, Socrates, of a course of life which is likely to bring you to an untimely end? To him I may fairly answer: There you are mistaken: Whereas, according to your view, the heroes who fell at Troy were not good for much, and the son of Thetis above all, who altogether despised danger in comparison with disgrace; and when his goddess mother said to him, in his eagerness to slay Hector, that if he avenged his companion Patroclus, and slew Hector, he would die himself – “Fate,” as she said, “waits upon you next after Hector”; he, hearing this, utterly despised danger and death, and instead of fearing them, feared rather to live in dishonor, and not to avenge his friend.
For wherever a man’s place is, whether the place which he has chosen or that in which he has been placed by a commander, there he ought to remain in the hour of danger; he should not think of death or of anything, but of disgrace. And this, O men of Athens, is a true saying. Strange, indeed, would be my conduct, O men of Athens, if I who, when I was ordered by the generals whom you chose to command me at Potidaea and Amphipolis and Delium, remained where they placed me, like any other man, facing death; if, I say, now, when, as I conceive and imagine, God orders me to fulfil the philosopher’s mission of searching into myself and other men, I were to desert my post through fear of death, or any other fear; that would indeed be strange, and I might justly be arraigned in court for denying the existence of the gods, if I disobeyed the oracle because I was afraid of death: For this fear of death is indeed the pretence of wisdom, and not real wisdom, being the appearance of knowing the unknown; since no one knows whether death, which they in their fear apprehend to be the greatest evil, may not be the greatest good.
Is there not here conceit of knowledge, which is a disgraceful sort of ignorance? And this is the point in which, as I think, I am superior to men in general, and in which I might perhaps fancy myself wiser than other men, – that whereas I know but little of the world below, I do not suppose that I know: And therefore if you let me go now, and reject the counsels of Anytus, who said that if I were not put to death I ought not to have been prosecuted, and that if I escape now, your sons will all be utterly ruined by listening to my words – if you say to me, Socrates, this time we will not mind Anytus, and will let you off, but upon one condition, that are to inquire and speculate in this way any more, and that if you are caught doing this again you shall die; – if this was the condition on which you let me go, I should reply: Men of Athens, I honor and love you; but I shall obey God rather than you, and while I have life and strength I shall never cease from the practice and teaching of philosophy, exhorting anyone whom I meet after my manner, and convincing him, saying: O my friend, why do you who are a citizen of the great and mighty and wise city of Athens, care so much about laying up the greatest amount of money and honor and reputation, and so little about wisdom and truth and the greatest improvement of the soul, which you never regard or heed at all?
Are you not ashamed of this? And if the person with whom I am arguing says: Yes, but I do care; I do not depart or let him go at once; I interrogate and examine and cross-examine him, and if I think that he has no virtue, but only says that he has, I reproach him with undervaluing the greater, and overvaluing the less.
And this I should say to everyone whom I meet, young and old, citizen and alien, but especially to the citizens, inasmuch as they are my brethren. For this is the command of God, as I would have you know; and I believe that to this day no greater good has ever happened in the state than my service to the God. For I do nothing but go about persuading you all, old and young alike, not to take thought for your persons and your properties, but first and chiefly to care about the greatest improvement of the soul.
I tell you that virtue is not given by money, but that from virtue come money and every other good of man, public as well as private.
This is my teaching, and if this is the doctrine which corrupts the youth, my influence is ruinous indeed. But if anyone says that this is not my teaching, he is speaking an untruth. Wherefore, O men of Athens, I say to you, do as Anytus bids or not as Anytus bids, and either acquit me or not; but whatever you do, know that I shall never alter my ways, not even if I have to die many times. Men of Athens, do not interrupt, but hear me; there was an agreement between us that you should hear me out.
And I think that what I am going to say will do you good: I would have you know that, if you kill such a one as I am, you will injure yourselves more than you will injure me. Meletus and Anytus will not injure me: I do not deny that he may, perhaps, kill him, or drive him into exile, or deprive him of civil rights; and he may imagine, and others may imagine, that he is doing him a great injury: And now, Athenians, I am not going to argue for my own sake, as you may think, but for yours, that you may not sin against the God, or lightly reject his boon by condemning me.
For if you kill me you will not easily find another like me, who, if I may use such a ludicrous figure of speech, am a sort of gadfly, given to the state by the God; and the state is like a great and noble steed who is tardy in his motions owing to his very size, and requires to be stirred into life.
I am that gadfly which God has given the state and all day long and in all places am always fastening upon you, arousing and persuading and reproaching you. And as you will not easily find another like me, I would advise you to spare me.
I dare say that you may feel irritated at being suddenly awakened when you are caught napping; and you may think that if you were to strike me dead, as Anytus advises, which you easily might, then you would sleep on for the remainder of your lives, unless God in his care of you gives you another gadfly.
And that I am given to you by God is proved by this: And had I gained anything, or if my exhortations had been paid, there would have been some sense in that: And I have a witness of the truth of what I say; my poverty is a sufficient witness. Someone may wonder why I go about in private, giving advice and busying myself with the concerns of others, but do not venture to come forward in public and advise the state.
I will tell you the reason of this. You have often heard me speak of an oracle or sign which comes to me, and is the divinity which Meletus ridicules in the indictment.
This sign I have had ever since I was a child. The sign is a voice which comes to me and always forbids me to do something which I am going to do, but never commands me to do anything, and this is what stands in the way of my being a politician. And rightly, as I think. For I am certain, O men of Athens, that if I had engaged in politics, I should have perished long ago and done no good either to you or to myself. And don’t be offended at my telling you the truth: I can give you as proofs of this, not words only, but deeds, which you value more than words.
Let me tell you a passage of my own life, which will prove to you that I should never have yielded to injustice from any fear of death, and that if I had not yielded I should have died at once. I will tell you a story – tasteless, perhaps, and commonplace, but nevertheless true. The only office of state which I ever held, O men of Athens, was that of senator; the tribe Antiochis, which is my tribe, had the presidency at the trial of the generals who had not taken up the bodies of the slain after the battle of Arginusae; and you proposed to try them all together, which was illegal, as you all thought afterwards; but at the time I was the only one of the Prytanes who was opposed to the illegality, and I gave my vote against you; and when the orators threatened to impeach and arrest me, and have me taken away, and you called and shouted, I made up my mind that I would run the risk, having law and justice with me, rather than take part in your injustice because I feared imprisonment and death.
This happened in the days of the democracy. But when the oligarchy of the Thirty was in power, they sent for me and four others into the rotunda, and bade us bring Leon the Salaminian from Salamis, as they wanted to execute him.
This was a specimen of the sort of commands which they were always giving with the view of implicating as many as possible in their crimes; and then I showed, not in words only, but in deed, that, if I may be allowed to use such an expression, I cared not a straw for death, and that my only fear was the fear of doing an unrighteous or unholy thing.
For the strong arm of that oppressive power did not frighten me into doing wrong; and when we came out of the rotunda the other four went to Salamis and fetched Leon, but I went quietly home.
For which I might have lost my life, had not the power of the Thirty shortly afterwards come to an end. And to this many will witness. Now do you really imagine that I could have survived all these years, if I had led a public life, supposing that like a good man I had always supported the right and had made justice, as I ought, the first thing?
No, indeed, men of Athens, neither I nor any other. But I have been always the same in all my actions, public as well as private, and never have I yielded any base compliance to those who are slanderously termed my disciples or to any other.
For the truth is that I have no regular disciples: Nor do I converse with those who pay only, and not with those who do not pay; but anyone, whether he be rich or poor, may ask and answer me and listen to my words; and whether he turns out to be a bad man or a good one, that cannot be justly laid to my charge, as I never taught him anything.
And if anyone says that he has ever learned or heard anything from me in private which all the world has not heard, I should like you to know that he is speaking an untruth. But I shall be asked, Why do people delight in continually conversing with you? I have told you already, Athenians, the whole truth about this: And this is a duty which the God has imposed upon me, as I am assured by oracles, visions, and in every sort of way in which the will of divine power was ever signified to anyone.
This is true, O Athenians; or, if not true, would be soon refuted. For if I am really corrupting the youth, and have corrupted some of them already, those of them who have grown up and have become sensible that I gave them bad advice in the days of their youth should come forward as accusers and take their revenge; and if they do not like to come themselves, some of their relatives, fathers, brothers, or other kinsmen, should say what evil their families suffered at my hands. Now is their time.
Many of them I see in the court. There is Crito, who is of the same age and of the same deme with myself; and there is Critobulus his son, whom I also see. Then again there is Lysanias of Sphettus, who is the father of Aeschines – he is present; and also there is Antiphon of Cephisus, who is the father of Epignes; and there are the brothers of several who have associated with me.
There is Nicostratus the son of Theosdotides, and the brother of Theodotus now Theodotus himself is dead, and therefore he, at any rate, will not seek to stop him ; and there is Paralus the son of Demodocus, who had a brother Theages; and Adeimantus the son of Ariston, whose brother Plato is present; and Aeantodorus, who is the brother of Apollodorus, whom I also see.
I might mention a great many others, any of whom Meletus should have produced as witnesses in the course of his speech; and let him still produce them, if he has forgotten – I will make way for him. And let him say, if he has any testimony of the sort which he can produce. Nay, Athenians, the very opposite is the truth. For all these are ready to witness on behalf of the corrupter, of the destroyer of their kindred, as Meletus and Anytus call me; not the corrupted youth only – there might have been a motive for that – but their uncorrupted elder relatives.
Why should they too support me with their testimony? Why, indeed, except for the sake of truth and justice, and because they know that I am speaking the truth, and that Meletus is lying. Well, Athenians, this and the like of this is nearly all the defence which I have to offer.
Yet a word more. Perhaps there may be someone who is offended at me, when he calls to mind how he himself, on a similar or even a less serious occasion, had recourse to prayers and supplications with many tears, and how he produced his children in court, which was a moving spectacle, together with a posse of his relations and friends; whereas I, who am probably in danger of my life, will do none of these things.
Perhaps this may come into his mind, and he may be set against me, and vote in anger because he is displeased at this. Now if there be such a person among you, which I am far from affirming, I may fairly reply to him: My friend, I am a man, and like other men, a creature of flesh and blood, and not of wood or stone, as Homer says; and I have a family, yes, and sons.
O Athenians, three in number, one of whom is growing up, and the two others are still young; and yet I will not bring any of them hither in order to petition you for an acquittal. And why not? Not from any self-will or disregard of you. Whether I am or am not afraid of death is another question, of which I will not now speak. But my reason simply is that I feel such conduct to be discreditable to myself, and you, and the whole state. One who has reached my years, and who has a name for wisdom, whether deserved or not, ought not to debase himself.
At any rate, the world has decided that Socrates is in some way superior to other men. And if those among you who are said to be superior in wisdom and courage, and any other virtue, demean themselves in this way, how shameful is their conduct! I have seen men of reputation, when they have been condemned, behaving in the strangest manner: And I say that these things ought not to be done by those of us who are of reputation; and if they are done, you ought not to permit them; you ought rather to show that you are more inclined to condemn, not the man who is quiet, but the man who gets up a doleful scene, and makes the city ridiculous.
But, setting aside the question of dishonor, there seems to be something wrong in petitioning a judge, and thus procuring an acquittal instead of informing and convincing him. For his duty is, not to make a present of justice, but to give judgment; and he has sworn that he will judge according to the laws, and not according to his own good pleasure; and neither he nor we should get into the habit of perjuring ourselves – there can be no piety in that.
Do not then require me to do what I consider dishonorable and impious and wrong, especially now, when I am being tried for impiety on the indictment of Meletus. For if, O men of Athens, by force of persuasion and entreaty, I could overpower your oaths, then I should be teaching you to believe that there are no gods, and convict myself, in my own defence, of not believing in them.
But that is not the case; for I do believe that there are gods, and in a far higher sense than that in which any of my accusers believe in them. And to you and to God I commit my cause, to be determined by you as is best for you and me.
The jury finds Socrates guilty. Socrates’ Proposal for his Sentence There are many reasons why I am not grieved, O men of Athens, at the vote of condemnation. I expected it, and am only surprised that the votes are so nearly equal; for I had thought that the majority against me would have been far larger; but now, had thirty votes gone over to the other side, I should have been acquitted. And I may say that I have escaped Meletus.
And I may say more; for without the assistance of Anytus and Lycon, he would not have had a fifth part of the votes, as the law requires, in which case he would have incurred a fine of a thousand drachmae, as is evident. And so he proposes death as the penalty. And what shall I propose on my part, O men of Athens? Clearly that which is my due.
And what is that which I ought to pay or to receive? What shall be done to the man who has never had the wit to be idle during his whole life; but has been careless of what the many care about – wealth, and family interests, and military offices, and speaking in the assembly, and magistracies, and plots, and parties. Reflecting that I was really too honest a man to follow in this way and live, I did not go where I could do no good to you or to myself; but where I could do the greatest good privately to everyone of you, thither I went, and sought to persuade every man among you that he must look to himself, and seek virtue and wisdom before he looks to his private interests, and look to the state before he looks to the interests of the state; and that this should be the order which he observes in all his actions.
What shall be done to such a one? Doubtless some good thing, O men of Athens, if he has his reward; and the good should be of a kind suitable to him. What would be a reward suitable to a poor man who is your benefactor, who desires leisure that he may instruct you?
There can be no more fitting reward than maintenance in the Prytaneum, O men of Athens, a reward which he deserves far more than the citizen who has won the prize at Olympia in the horse or chariot race, whether the chariots were drawn by two horses or by many.
For I am in want, and he has enough; and he only gives you the appearance of happiness, and I give you the reality. And if I am to estimate the penalty justly, I say that maintenance in the Prytaneum is the just return. Perhaps you may think that I am braving you in saying this, as in what I said before about the tears and prayers.
But that is not the case. I speak rather because I am convinced that I never intentionally wronged anyone, although I cannot convince you of that – for we have had a short conversation only; but if there were a law at Athens, such as there is in other cities, that a capital cause should not be decided in one day, then I believe that I should have convinced you; but now the time is too short.
I cannot in a moment refute great slanders; and, as I am convinced that I never wronged another, I will assuredly not wrong myself. I will not say of myself that I deserve any evil, or propose any penalty. Why should I? Because I am afraid of the penalty of death which Meletus proposes?
When I do not know whether death is a good or an evil, why should I propose a penalty which would certainly be an evil? Shall I say imprisonment? And why should I live in prison, and be the slave of the magistrates of the year – of the Eleven? Or shall the penalty be a fine, and imprisonment until the fine is paid?
There is the same objection. I should have to lie in prison, for money I have none, and I cannot pay. And if I say exile and this may possibly be the penalty which you will affix , I must indeed be blinded by the love of life if I were to consider that when you, who are my own citizens, cannot endure my discourses and words, and have found them so grievous and odious that you would fain have done with them, others are likely to endure me.
No, indeed, men of Athens, that is not very likely. And what a life should I lead, at my age, wandering from city to city, living in ever-changing exile, and always being driven out!
For I am quite sure that into whatever place I go, as here so also there, the young men will come to me; and if I drive them away, their elders will drive me out at their desire: Yes, Socrates, but cannot you hold your tongue, and then you may go into a foreign city, and no one will interfere with you?
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