WSN Knowledge Base 9.1.15

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The compensation committee is governed by a written charter approved by our board of directors. Our compensation committee reviews and approves policies relating to compensation and benefits of our officers and employees, corporate goals and objectives relevant to the compensation of our Chief Executive Officer and other executive officers, evaluates the performance of these officers in light of those goals and objectives and approves the compensation of these officers based on such 10 evaluations.

WSN Knowledge Base 9.1.15

In reaching these conclusions, the compensation committee considered the factors set forth in Exchange Act Rule 10C-1 and Nasdaq listing standards. The compensation committee also reviews and approves the issuance of stock options and other awards under our equity plan.

The compensation committee will review and evaluate, at least annually, the performance of the compensation committee and its members, including compliance by the compensation committee with its charter.

Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee The nominating and corporate governance committee of our board of directors currently consists of Dr. Van Wart chairperson , Mr. Hale and Dr. The nominating and corporate governance committee met two times during fiscal year A static model, with a manageable level of detail, for choosing among alternative facilities and making assignments of source areas to the facilities chosen was developed.

This model was useful in the following respects: Thus a system configuration which violates the facility choices and service area assignments corresponding to the minimum cost represents an additional cost which is presumed to pay for the elimination of some undersirable aspect of the minimum cost configuration. The model developed is described in Section 4. The same section contains comments on potential applications of the model and some experience already obtained with the model. The facility selection model leads naturally to a more comprehensive next-stage development which could not be achieved on the present study but which is achievable through further study of scope similar to the present one.

A further major segment of work on this study was the compilation and analysis of data descriptive of the Buffalo SMSA. The results of this work are contained in the various appendices.

In particular, estimates of residential and non-residential refuse for all census tracts throughout Erie County were obtained and projected in five-year periods out to the year , and an estimate was derived of the operating cost per mile of Buffalo collection vehicles in spite of the absence of maintenance records and odometer readings. As part of the examination of solid waste handling operations and planning in the Buffalo SMSA and elsewhere it was observed that an artificial separation was maintained between residential solid waste and solid waste generated at most other sources.

The results of a preliminary analysis Appendix F demonstrated the economics of scale which could be realized if all waste planning and operations within a region were coordinated and the available land could be utilized more efficiently. Further examinations of this form of coordination appear warranted.

What is strongly lacking is the availability of suitable and useful regional information, and the necessary methodological and evaluative approaches which should be accessible in suitable forms to both the regional planners and the consultants in the solid waste field. In outline form, a two to three year program is recommended having the above objectives, and which includes the following activities: Provide appropriate projections and forecasting techniques for estimating future residential, commercial and industrial solid waste generation quantities.

Included here would be the collection and presentation of data pertaining to waste generation coefficients associated with sources of generation.

Establish the form and content of a regional solid waste management information system which contains: Maintain information on liquid and gaseous waste management practices and interrelating pollution effects with solid waste handling. This information would include, to the degree possible, the deleterious effects associated with all waste handling and objective measures of these effects. Gather, evaluate and translate the available mathematical models used for operations and planning e. Develop an information gathering approach and method of transforming research and development results on new processes and equipments which would allow for their being synthesized and evaluated.

Formulate operationally-useful evaluation system models which are applicable under conditions when a large digital computer is available and when only desk calculators or slide rules are available. The evaluation system models would be described in sufficient detail so as to allow for their application without extensive training. These models would be structured in a fashion that permits their being changed, if and when, new or improved submodels become available. Although the above recommended program will be difficult to accomplish in the form outlined, the value to be derived by the planning and consulting communities as well as some organizations responsible for solid waste operations would be exceptionally high.

In brief, having the above capabilities available would permit the planners to perform some preliminary assessments of the region’s waste management problems, would enhance the effectiveness of the consultants, and would provide the regional decision makers with a sounder, quantitative basis for selecting from among alternative solid waste candidates.

The present complexities of environmental problems and the knowledge that, as time goes on, these issues will become even more complex and inter- related makes this conclusion inescapable. The system should be one that can be tailored or adapted to socio- geographic areas not generally congruent with political sub- divisions of varying sizes and heterogeneity, and can be modified or extended as needs arise.

Analyses undertaken for such systems can provide the information required for action today, and will furnish invaluable leads to the research needed to provide the bases for tomorrow’s programs” Ref. No attempt will be made to describe formally the philosophy, methodologies, and techniques of systems analysis since this has been accomplished by many authors. See R. Hitch and Roland N.

The concept of a region has been employed within this study since it is generally accepted that long-term and successful approaches to the problems associated with solid waste handling usually encompass a geographic area which is larger, or at least different from, the traditional political boundaries.

Some of the most cogent reasons employed for examining solid wastes on a regional basis are: Among the factors supporting this statement are 1 greater available economic resources and opportunities to achieve economies of scale, and 2 the presence of sufficient land resources which can be dedicated to the needs of solid waste disposal. A variety of studies and surveys, e. The Buffalo Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, which consists of the Counties of Erie and Niagara, was selected to serve as the empirical basis for this study.

This region represents a viable interrelated economic and planning entity as defined by the Department of Housing and Urban Development and contains a variety of community types and land-use patterns. The Buffalo Region was used to suggest problem areas and as a source of data for suggesting relationships, determining the orders of magnitude of various descriptive parameters, and providing inputs to the models developed.

As the study progressed, it developed that greatest use was made of data from Erie County, and relatively little from the rest of the SMSA. The attempt, however, was to describe problems in terms of general models which could be applied to both counties in the SMSA, the SMSA as a whole, or in fact to other regions in the United States. The systems analysis effort of this study and the related efforts of data collection, analysis and model building related to regional solid waste management are predicated upon a conceptualization of a regional environmental control and waste management decision-making structure and on the objectives of a regional solid waste management system within the struct- ure.

One cannot claim that the detailed decision-making structure of any particular region actually does follow the clean organizational lines of the conceptual structure.

In particular, except when described in the broadest terms the decision-making bodies within Erie and Niagara Countries do not fall into this pattern. The selection of measures of waste management system effectiveness and the measurement of performance of alternative solid waste handling systems for the region, are based upon this concept of the regional system. In the context of regional solid waste management there are a number of choices; examples of effectiveness measures may be related to the following attributes: However it is recognized that the performance of any candidate system could be determined on the bases of measurements of the above factors providing that the system operation is not objectionable in terms of gaseous and liquid wastes, and associated air and water pollution standards.

In other words, two systems would not be judged equivalent if they perform similarly with regard to the factors given above, yet for example one introduces large quantities of pollutants into the air. As another example, a system which incorporates the widespread use of refuse grinders and employs the sewer for refuse disposal could provide a high level of land conservation but at the cost of a drastically worsened sewage disposal problem and a potentially serious water pollution problem.

As has been well recognized and documented, solid waste handling problems are intricately bound up with many other aspects of waste handling and environmental pollution. These relationships result in difficulties in studying solid waste management if the approach utilized is to consider air and water pollution simply as effects of the solid waste management system.

Clearly, air and water pollution are measures of effectiveness appropriate to the entire regional environmental control and waste management system, of which the solid waste management system is only one portion. Thus, operating within the solid waste management system alone, it is not possible to optimize regional waste i.

From this statement, the following two conclusions may be drawn: Such as, those properties or performance measures which affect other portions of the overall system would be measured and provided as inputs to analyses of tradeoffs among the various subsystems. The designer of the solid waste management system is in some respects in a similar position to the designer of the military weapon system who needs a definition of effectiveness to evaluate alternative concepts.

In a general sense, the effectiveness of the weapon system is its contribution, as part of the entire arsenal of the nation’s weapons, to the military strength of the country.

This definition is too general to be useful and almost impossible to measure quantitatively. The useful measures of effectiveness are more likely to be described in terms of expected kills, increased size of enemy force required to oppose the system, etc. The principle of selection of effectiveness measures can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness measures should be appropriate to the decision-making level employing the measure; i.

On the other hand, the measures should be sufficiently comprehensive so as to be of use to the decision-maker at the next higher level. In general, planning decisions with regard to solid waste management are viewed as constituting a functional responsibility within the regional planning decision-making complex.

For example, within Erie County, the Commis- sioner of Planning and his staff play a major role in developing solid waste management concepts. The various responsibilities within the decision-making complex form a hierarchy corresponding to the functions within the regional political structure of the officials involved in making planning-decisions. A simplified pattern of regional planning-decision making is shown on Fig.

Within the hierarchy, the highest decision-making level in regional planning is viewed as involving interactions among economic development, land use, transportation, environmental control and waste management as well as several other areas not shown. Subsumed under the environmental control and waste manage- ment area, decisions are made involving interactions among the problem areas dealing with liquid wastes, gaseous wastes and solid wastes.

Simultaneously, decision-making activity is carried on within the subordinate problem areas. The activity is a continuing iterative process, with results at the higher level constraining the analyses on the lower level while results within the lower level problem areas impose input changes on evaluations at the higher level. Decisions at the higher level do not necessarily supercede those taken at the lower level; the “levels” relate to the detail of the information used in the system evaluation and decision-making activity, rather than to political power.

The principle stated above. The information flow relating to that decision-making level is illustrated in Figure 2. The structure consists of three parallel subsystems: The three subsystems are completely inter- connected, which means that the problem confronting each subsystem results from the total environmental situation i.

For example, the input to the liquid waste management subsystem results from all liquid pollutant-producing activities of the household, industrial, and public sectors of the region. Included in this input are the introduction of solid waste grindings into the sewer system which provides a partial relief to the solid waste management subsystem and other products of solid waste disposal operations such as waste waters resulting from incinerator residue quenching operations, and leachants into the ground waters resulting from landfill operations.

At the total waste management system level, the requirements for information regarding any candidate subsystem consist of the following: If, for each of the three subsystems, the above outputs are established as a function of the input amounts of waste and pollutants received as a result of water management or pollution control activities associated with the other subsystems , the decision-maker of the total waste manage- ment system has the essential information necessary for decisions regarding the overall.

Given any combination of postulated subsystems, and assuming appropriate analytical models, the following properties of the overall system can be investigated: For example, if the liquid waste exceeds the design capacity of the liquid waste subsystem, then these subsystems, when examined jointly, are incompatible. Subsystems which can function together in the sense that no capacity violations or exceedances of technological capabilities would result are compatible.

On the other hand, a compatible system is conceivable in which there are subsubsysterns whose entire capacity or capability cannot be utilized, thus representing an inefficient use of resources. Since facilities must be planned to serve over substantial lengths of time over which the quantities of wastes of various types will change, the concept of balance must admit some unused capacity over the lifetimes of the facilities to admit performance over the entire range of projected input quantities.

The aggregation of these data from the three subsystems of any balanced system constitutes the information upon which an evaluation of total waste system effectiveness can be performed. These data represent the amount of pollutants or wastes remaining in the environment. Having discussed the nature of systems analysis with regard to the total regional waste management and environmental control system, and its relationship with the solid waste subsystem, there remains the question of the nature of system analysis specifically with regard to the solid waste management subsystem.

That measures are required of subsystem direct costs, and of quantities of land, water, and air pollutants which are output by the subsystem, have already been indicated. But there are many possible configurations of the subsystem which might appear similar on the basis of these types of measurements alone.

In particular, the interactions among the variety of waste sources, of solid waste types, of processing and materials handling techniques, and of operating, management, and regulative bodies, which characterize the complex called the solid waste management subsystem, make choices among subsystem configurations difficult. A set of measures of effectiveness appropriate to choices at this level is required; these measures would be basic to systems analyses devoted to choosing among alternative solid waste management subsystem configurations.

In addition to air and water pollution, with which we have already dealt, commonly mentioned deleterious effects of solid waste and of solid waste handling practices may be grouped as follows: Moreover, a concern for most of these factors in combination is at the root of the reason for waste removal beyond the problem of having insufficient storage capacity ; in other words waste is nuisance material which must be removed from its source locations fundamentally because of most of these factors.

A comprehensive literature survey of the health aspects or disease relationships of solid wastes as well as the injury and safety considera- tions associated with solid waste handling is contained in Ref. There are several reasons to support this contention. First, if many factors are combined in a measure of effectiveness, there is a danger that the measure will be insensitive to any individual factor. A desire to be all-inclusive can result in de-emphasis, for example, on the importance of the scarcity of available land in many areas.

As will be seen from subsequent discussion, there are other measures potentially more useful for decision-making in the face of the dilemmas typically troubling the regional planner than the deleterious effects listed. A second, and more fundamental, reason for desiring to emphasize factors other than the deleterious effects is that these effects are not “traded-off” during subsystem design.

Instead, these effects are recognized, perhaps implicitly, by keeping them within acceptable levels and paying the costs. Conceptually, any system planned with levels higher than these acceptance levels has zero effectiveness and is not to be considered. The concept of acceptance levels and their use in screening solid waste handling systems are expanded upon in Appendix H. For example, there would be a threat of fly and rodent propagation, as well as such other deleterious effects as odor, if a system of non-removal of waste was contemplated.

Therefore, a service is performed by any system which removes waste at all, to the degree that the fly and rodent propagation and other deleterious effects at the source of waste generation are reduced. Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Phoenix-Mesa, AZ Pittsburgh, PA San Diego, CA Newark, NJ Denver, CO Oakland, CA Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH San Francisco, CA Miami, FL Dotted bubble corresponds to AWM pre-tax income and margin Key: National Banks are identified on the prior page.

Regional and Community Banks were based on number of branches and deposit share. CDI Pressure from ramp-up in new builds Revenue improvement NII runs flat to 4Q05; deposit margin remains under pressure Fee revenue up in branches and mortgage No MSR risk management revenue planned Credit stable Still monitoring Katrina-related exposure Expense up modestly from level Continued investment in build-out of branches and mortgage business Regional Banking – managed against Overhead Ratio excl.

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This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution CC-BY license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Go to: Abstract In Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks R-WSNs , in order to achieve the maximum data collection rate it is critical that sensors operate in very low duty cycles because of the sporadic availability of energy. A sensor has to stay in a dormant state in most of the time in order to recharge the battery and use the energy prudently. In addition, a sensor cannot always conserve energy if a network is able to harvest excessive energy from the environment due to its limited storage capacity. Therefore, energy exploitation and energy saving have to be traded off depending on distinct application scenarios.

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WSN Knowledge Base 9.1.15. Wireless sensor Network in IoT Part1

WSN Knowledge Base 9.1.15